Tuesday, June 04, 2013

Tours of Duty - What is Persecution? (Perscution 101, #3)

This post is #3 of a series. For other posts please see here: #1 - #2 - #3 - #4 - #5 - #6 - #7 - #8 - #9 

I have a dear friend whose husband is a career military officer. Over the 18 or so years he's been on active duty, they've had seasons when he was assigned tours of duty in combat zones while his family stayed stateside. During other seasons, he was assigned to risky non-combat zones where his family could not join him; at still other times he was assigned to international posts and lived there with his family. Along the way they have also been blessed with several tours of duty at various posts stateside - seasons when they lived in houses off base and he drove in to his job just like you or I might do every day.

Throughout all these tours of duty, though, he was always a soldier. Since most of his service has been post 9/11, he has always remembered that just wearing the uniform made him a target. Even when serving in the "safest" job stateside, he knew that he was part of something bigger than himself. He knew that he shared common enemies with his fellow soldiers throughout the world. He never forgot that the tour of duty to which he was assigned did not define him. Even today, he knows he is a soldier and is willing to follow through on all that means.

Among the many analogies scripture gives us about our faith, the analogy of a soldier is one linked directly with suffering:
Join with me in suffering, like a good soldier of Christ Jesus. No one serving as a soldier gets entangled in civilian affairs, but rather tries to please his commanding officer. (2 Timothy 2:3-4)
As we discuss various definitions of persecution today, I ask you to keep this analogy in mind. By the end of today's lesson, I hope that we can each better identify with the "persecuted church" as we realize that we are also involved in the same battle.

What is persecution? Legal definitions
Most modern nation-states look to Article 18 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a United Nations document, for guidance on their legal definitions of persecution. This document uses the phrase "violations of religious freedom" and guarantees that all peoples should have the following rights:
- The right to believe
- The right to practice those beliefs
- The right to transmit those beliefs to their offspring
- The right to spread their faith
- The right to change religions

Article 18 is not limited to violation of Christian religious freedom. This is important to note, for while Christians are heavily persecuted, minority religions throughout the world often face persecutions in similar patterns. For example, more Muslims than Christians have died at the hands of Muslims. Muslim sectarian violence often follows similar patterns that we will discuss when we look at the pattern of persecution. As we become aware of potential "hot spots" for persecution, we should watch for ways any minority religion is treated. For the purposes of this study, however, we will consider definitions of Christian persecution for the remainder of this post.

From a legal perspective, and even within the church, there is no common agreement on a definition of persecution. One reason for this is that the word "persecution" has political consequences. For example, Chinese authorities accused of jailing Christians to "persecute them" will defend themselves by saying, "This isn't persecution. They have broken the law." Another challenge to legally defining persecution is that from a legal viewpoint, there is a difference between the right to believe (generally considered absolute, as even oppressive societies will claim they give citizens this right) and the right to exercise that belief (always conditional, even within the most free society - someone whose religious beliefs require human sacrifice, to give an extreme example, would find themselves limited in the ability to practice those beliefs). (Boyd-MacMillan, 85-90). The line between religious freedom and the responsibility to society is constantly fluctuating within any culture.

Two broad legal approaches to persecution have emerged. One school of thought uses the word to describe any violation of religious freedom. An example of this approach is David Limbaugh's book Persecution, which highlighted abuses of the "separation of church and state principle" (Boyd-MacMillan, 90). The second school of thought limits the definition of persecution to "extreme, gross violation of one's religious freedom, such as torture and imprisonment".  Michael Horowitz, a Jewish lawyer who has advocated for Christian liberty and helped with the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, prefers this second approach. He sees the struggle American Christians face as no different from the fight for rights that goes on with any minority group within a democracy, and that Christians have a mechanism to fight those violations. He states, "To whine about persecution here [in the United State] only dilutes the desire to do something about it elsewhere....The idea of equating what we go through with what they go through in North Korea or China or Pakistan or Sudan or Cuba is wrong." (quoted in Boyd-MacMillan, 91).

These different approaches have led to inconsistent usage of the term "persecution". Organizations that work within the world of persecution are beginning to delineate "phases" of persecution, including disinformation, harassment, discrimination, reductions in religious freedom, as well as outright hostility and systemic targeting of religious populations. It's also worth noting that even those who advocate a broader definition of the word "persecution" recognize that there are different degrees of persecution. It's important to realize, though, that a consensus of the definition of "persecution" is still evolving (Boyd-MacMillan, 92); as we read about persecution we should be aware of the perspective of the author to best understand the meaning behind his or her words.

Article 18 of the UDHR lays out a legal foundation. However, it completely ignores the spiritual dimensions of Christian persecution. A Biblical understanding will round out the definition.

What is persecution? A Biblical Overview 

To most effectively draw principles for a theology of persecution, we must understand what persecution truly is. Technically, persecution is defined as “the systematic attempt to suppress or to exterminate Christianity by social pressure to the point of violence” (Adeyemo, 1979: 23-24). Some church leaders promote a definition of persecution that requires the motive to be solely religious. However, Schirrmacher notes that in the New Testament and early church, persecution for “purely religious” motives was rare. Instead, political, cultural, national, economic, and personal motives mixed with religious ones to create “a confusing blend of religious concerns with cultural and social problems” (Schirrmacher, 2001:17) – a situation seen in most of the persecutions of the modern era.

Mixed motives can readily be seen in some of the prominent persecutions of the New Testament: Paul ministered in Ephesus for two years openly, but persecution came when the converts quit purchasing idols and caused financial concerns (Acts 19:23-20:2). Paul’s later arrest in Jerusalem was precipitated by a violent Jewish crowd. Roman authorities, seeking to maintain political peace in the region, arrested him to find out why the crowd was upset (Acts 23:24).

The meaning of “persecution” is frequently misunderstood. Michael Wilkins observes two common misunderstandings: 1) Persecution is a radical commitment for the spiritual elite; 2) Persecution is the “highest form of spirituality.” Against both of these Wilkins points out the teaching of the early church fathers: “All Christians are disciples, hence, the radical nature of discipleship displayed by Ignatius is a personal extension of his own Christian life.” Wilkins proposes a third understanding of persecution: a radical commitment to Christ in difficult circumstances – even martyrdom – seen by the disciple as “a natural extension of the Christian life” (Wilkins, 1991: 332-334).

One term that seems to link persecution with discipleship is summatheetees, or “fellow-disciple.” This term appears in Martyrdom of Polycarp as the author prays that he would become a “fellow-disciple” in martyrdom. This word in rare in Hellenistic and early Christian usage, but does occur once in the New Testament, in John 11:16 where John records Thomas’ words upon Jesus’ heading toward Jerusalem: “Thomas…said to his fellow disciples (summatheetees), ‘let us also go, that we may die with Him.’” Interestingly, both the John reference and the Polycarp reference are in martyr contexts (Wilkins, 1991:319).

Paul’s observation of the certainty of persecution to those who desire to live godly lives (2 Tim. 3:12) uses a different term, dioko. From the root dio, “to flee”, this word is used in Paul’s writings for both “persecution” and “follow after.” It seems to denote a pursuit, an intentional action by those who carry out the action. Persecution can thus be said to be related to the intentional pursuit of a Christian. This pursuit, we will see, comes not from the human agents involved but is part of a larger spiritual war. Boyd-MacMillan (103) observes that an "ungodly trinity" pursues the Christian: the world, our flesh, and Satan. He notes that dioko is linked to the idea of "to pursue" and illustrates two ways that persecution goes back to Satan's war against God: 1) It is about trying to get to Christ through His followers. We are the victims, not the object of persecution; and 2) It is universal. Satan wants to destroy God's creation. According to his understanding of Revelation 12:13, Satan has been persecuting the church since the birth of Christ.

Scripture portrays as persecution various forms of suffering other than martyrdom. The ostracism experienced by the healed man expelled from the temple (John 9) is contrasted with those who failed to openly speak of Jesus because “they loved the approval of men more than the approval of God” (John 12:43). 1 Peter, written to persecuted Christians, uses the generic term “suffering” far more frequently, though in 4:12-13 Peter makes clear that their “fiery ordeal” is sharing in the sufferings of Christ.

Peter repeatedly uses the word pasko, translated “suffer.” This verb is used in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts to refer to the literal, physical sufferings of Christ – in the KJV it is even translated “Passion” in Acts 1:3. Paul uses the term to refer to sharing in the sufferings of Christ, noting that one part of the body cannot suffer without the rest of the body feeling that suffering. But Peter uses the word the most, building I Peter around the theme of suffering. For Peter, there are two types of suffering: suffering for the sake of Christ, and suffering for one’s own sinful choices.

Outright, blatant persecution in the form of arrest and torture with possible martyrdom is actually one of the last steps in a process that begins with dislike, social pressure, and even political policy and personal ambition (Osborne, 1999:72-1). Osborne calls persecution a ‘form of hatred’ (Osborne, 1999:72-2). Tson concurs, seeing arrest and torture as only one type of “suffering for Christ” (Tson, 1997:424). He explains:
[Suffering for Christ] begins when one leaves close relatives for the service of Christ. For some, it means selling their possessions and giving them to the poor, which often means giving them for the propagation of the gospel. For others, suffering for Christ may mean agonizing in prayer for the cause of Christ, or agonizing and toiling for the building up of the body of Christ and the perfecting of the saints….suffering for Christ is not a self-inflicted suffering (Tson, 1997:424).
Thus, persecution can be broadly defined as any suffering that would not occur apart from a radical commitment to Christ. But there is a second component to the definition that we will now consider: this radical commitment attracts an intentional pursuit of the Christian in a spiritual war.

The book of Revelation, written from the viewpoint of a Christian enduring persecution to other Christians during a time of persecution (Johnstone, 1978: 3), contains a message that supersedes all of the eschatological arguments that it has engendered over the years. In Revelation, we see God’s victory in and through the church. We see God sovereign over history. We see the successful outcome of all missions efforts as worshippers gather around the throne from every tribe, tongue, nation, and people group. And significantly, we see that this victory is achieved “neither by power, wealth, or force, but through the authority of Jesus, by the Word of God, by the Holy Spirit, and by prayer” (Schirrmacher, 2001: 20).

The word group martur/martus (“witness” or “martyr”) plays a significant role in the book of Revelation. Within its 22 chapters, some form of this word is used 17 times. Even Jesus is identified twice as martur/martus (1:5; 3:14). This introduction sets the tone for the entire book: Jesus is the “Forerunner and Pioneer of the ones who are facing the threat of torture and execution for their faith. Yet He is not only their Forerunner into death; He is also their Forerunner out of that death by the fact of His resurrection” (Tson, 1997: 271-272).

The word “martyr” is used more broadly in Scripture than someone who dies because of Christian faith. The Greek martus originally meant “witness,” and over time came to mean one whose witness for their faith resulted in death (Ruffin, 1985: 1). The verb martureo encompasses the ideas of both truth and Scripture. Its meaning includes “Christ-like values, such as faithfulness, truth, witness, and lifestyle. Eventually, even ‘death-style’ is subsumed” in the connotation of the word (Tallman, 2000: 602). J. Ray Tallman further notes that “The word does away with any distinction of what a true believer might live and die for. Death does not stop the witness given. It merely adds an exclamation point of truth, faithfulness, and love for the glory of God. It is the supreme witnessing act” (Tallman, 2000:602).

Throughout the book of Revelation, ‘witnessing’ leads to martyrdom to such an extent that Josef Tson says, “The essence of being a Christian prophet is expressing Christ by one’s words, lifestyle, endurance, and ultimately martyrdom” (Tson, 1997: 288). Revelation makes no distinction between those “persecuted because of their faith” and those “persecuted for their active support of justice” (Schirrmacher, 2001:18). Thus a martyr can be considered “a Christian who suffers death of his own free will, as the penalty for the confession of his faith or the refusal to deny it or one of its dogmas, principles, or practices” (Schirrmacher, 2001: 18).

Revelation has been called “a martyrological document” (Weinrich, 1981: 73; Johnstone, 1978: 3). William Weinrich notes that a continual reference to the persecuted and the martyrs is consistent with Revelation’s overall understanding of Christian existence: “the eschatological war in which Satan is the true enemy” (Weinrich, 1981: 73).

A consistent theme throughout the book of Revelation is that “bearing witness” is linked closely to the word of God and the “witness” or “testimony” of Jesus. John’s role in recording the Revelation was to bear witness to God’s Word and Jesus’ testimony (1:2); John is on Patmos because of God’s Word and the testimony of Jesus (1:9); the souls under the altar had been slain because of the word of God and the “testimony” they maintained (6:9); those who overcame Satan did so because of the blood of the Lamb, the word of their “testimony,” and not loving their life (12:11); the dragon makes war with the saints who keep the commandments of God and hold to the “testimony” of Jesus (12:17); and finally, the souls John saw had been beheaded because of the “testimony” of Jesus and the word of God – they along with the faithful came to life and reigned with Christ for 1000 years (20:4). The juxtaposition of these ideas makes clear that those who are “witnesses” for Christ do so on the firm ground of God’s Word – not their own ideas or traditions – and they maintain this “testimony” through obedience to God’s commands. In other words, not only do they preach the message, they live it. And in the living of the message, sometimes they die.

Yet it is in death that Scripture calls them conquerors (Rev. 12:11). These were individuals who entered fully into the battle of world evangelization and the spiritual warfare it entails. For them, Jesus was Savior and Lord, and both their faith and evangelism were not cheap. Brother Andrew writes of the significance of a strong Christianity that embraces this spiritual battle:
Weak Christianity is very often the result of cheap evangelism….God’s plan is to establish the testimony of Jesus firmly in the world today….World evangelism means spiritual warfare. When we enter into spiritual warfare, we begin to understand why whole areas of the world are closed off from the preaching of the Gospel, why whole nations seem to be in the grip of the evil one, why there is persecution….If we don’t see the spiritual warfare, then by failing to see it we tend to switch over to alternatives within our reach. Then we fail to attempt the impossible (Andrew, 1979: 140-141).
Josef Tson concurs with Brother Andrew’s emphasis on the spiritual battle as reflected in Revelation. Tson interprets Revelation as “the entire history of the Christian church, from the time of Christ on the earth to the time of the final victory of Christ and His church” (Tson, 1997: 284). From this perspective, he sees an ongoing war that Satan makes against the church, which God allows for two purposes: 1) Bringing the nations to God; 2) Allowing the martyrs to participate in the ongoing battle that will end in Satan’s defeat (Tson, 1997: 292).

Tson sees the letters to the seven churches as representing various aspects of the spiritual war (Tson, 1997:276-277). The church at Smyrna was obviously a persecuted church and will be examined more fully below, but Revelation portrays the other churches as being engaged in the battle as well. In my own inductive study of the churches from this perspective, I observed that Ephesus fought the battle of truth (2:2); Pergamum faced warfare so obvious that John said it existed “where Satan’s throne is” (2:13); Thyatira encountered false teachers who presented “the deep things of Satan” (2:24); Sardis faced a battle for her very spiritual life (3:1); Philadelphia encountered “the synagogue of Satan” (3:9); and Laodicea was losing the spiritual battle because of materialism and apathy (3:15, 17).

Smyrna was the church known specifically for its persecution and death (2:8-11). They were encouraged to be faithful to death for the 10 days of tribulation they would face. For the first century persecuted church reading this passage, the reference held a very distinct meaning. Prison in this time was for detention prior to trial; after trial they were sent to exile, labor camp, or death. During trial, individuals who claimed not to be a Christian were expected to pick up incense and put it onto a flame while claiming “Caesar is Lord.” Those who refused to do so were tortured for an entire day. If they survived, an execution order was issued. However, to avoid sending them to death with open wounds that the public would be able to see, authorities detained Christians in prison until the wounds at least began to heal – a process that took about 10 days. Prison in the first century Roman Empire was a brief holding place until public execution. The Christians in Smyrna were likely being prepared for torture and martyrdom. The admonition to be faithful unto death would have been significant to them, as well as to readers of John’s day (Tson, 1997: 275).

However, in the context of Revelation’s emphasis on martus/martur, Tson observes that this was not merely a call to die, but a call to witness (Tson, 1997: 276). He expounds: “Moreover, they were also assured that they would defeat Satan by their martyrdom, again just as Jesus had done. Their victory would come through death” (Tson, 1997: 276). Smyrna’s role in the spiritual battle required them to pay the ultimate price.

Perhaps because of the emphasis on the spiritual war and martyrdom throughout Revelation, John begins with a strong reminder of the sovereignty of God. Nine of the 10 New Testament references to God as “the Almighty” (ho pantokrator) occur in Revelation (1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:2; 16:7; 16:14; 19:6; 19:15; 21:22). Jesus shares this supremacy; John introduces Him as “the ruler of the kings of the earth” (Rev. 1:5). Read from the perspective of a persecuted believer, Revelation’s message is clear: “The kings of the earth are the ones who are persecuting the Christians; however, Christ is their ruler!” (Tson, 1997: 272-273).

Even in death, the sovereignty of God so emphasized throughout Revelation assures believers of ultimate victory. Josef Tson has written about the persecution he experienced in Romania:
For many years...I was groaning and saying ‘Lord, why?’...Now I have as the main pillar of my theology the sovereignty of God. The sovereignty of God means Satan at the end always finds out that he just promoted God’s cause. All God’s enemies combine to destroy His work, and they always discover at the end that they just promoted it. That’s the sovereignty of God (Schlossberg, 1991: 130-131).

Herbert Schlossberg comments that Tson’s insight underscores the importance of a well-rounded Biblical philosophy of history: “A theology of disaster that is true to a Biblical worldview recognizes the victory lurking behind every external setback to faithful followers of Christ” (Schlossberg, 1991: 130-131).

For Tson, who writes from the perspective of one who grew up under persecution in Romania, Revelation is encouraging. It shows Jesus Christ both reigning on His throne in heaven and present with His people in their affliction. He also knows their situation; each letter to the seven churches begins with the phrase “I know your…” following the introduction of Jesus (Tson, 1997: 272-273). Ultimately, Revelation serves as a reminder that God is sovereign, and that “His purposes are being fulfilled even by His own enemies. The Book of Revelation makes this truth shine with dazzling light” (Tson, 1997: 272-273).

That the battle is spiritual is underscored in other places in the New Testament. Paul explicitly tells the Ephesians that “Our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places” (Eph. 6:12). Boyd-MacMillan (112) observes that "principalities" here refers to Satan and his demons; while "powers" refers to earthly structures. Because Satan's goal is universal destruction of God's Creation and the church Christ died to build, he says that the demons work within earthly structures to get them serving Satan, instead of serving God. Elsewhere in the New Testament, Peter reminds his persecuted congregation that their adversary is “the devil,” who is actively seeking out prey “like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour” (1 Peter 5:8). Like Revelation, Peter links the persecuted believers to a certain victory (1 Peter 5:10). Peter also reminds the church that they are not suffering alone, but that other believers around the world are suffering similarly – a reminder of the prevalence of persecution (1 Peter 5:9). Paul’s encounter with the risen Christ on the Damascus road reminds us that the attacks are, ultimately, against Christ (Acts 9:4).

The recognition of persecution as part of Satan’s war against God is key to a strong Christianity in the face of battles. Without the recognition of the spiritual battle that rages, passivity and nominalism rise, and theological compromises are more prevalent (Schlossberg, 2001: 116-117). Schlossberg sees throughout all of Scripture the normalcy of persecution. The experiences of both Israel and the church teach today’s believers that “wherever people seek to follow the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the father of our Lord Jesus Christ, they can expect to suffer persecution” (Schlossberg, 1991: 115). An awareness that today’s persecution is directly linked to that experienced by the New Testament and early church as part of the same spiritual war awakens today’s church to the truth that persecution is part of the heritage of the church.

The reality of suffering unites believers in non-persecuted countries with those who are being persecuted. Alan Neely aptly observes that a genuine Christian mission “in due time will involve suffering” (Neely, 2000: 915-916). Paul emphasizes that while suffering is part of discipleship, it is also a method of witness (2 Cor. 4:8-10). The regular emphasis on the body and blood of Christ in the Communion meal reminds us of the reality of Christ’s suffering – and should also remind us that this suffering “happens repeatedly outside as well as inside the walls of the church” (Neely, 2000: 915-916).

Paul’s words to Timothy that it is those who desire to live godly lives in Christ Jesus who will be persecuted underscores the radical claims of the gospel. Kenneth Scott Latourette observes that Jesus’ warning of persecution to those who would follow Him has consistently been fulfilled:
This is not so strange. So radical are the claims of the Gospel, so sweeping are its demands on the faithful, so uncompromising does it render those who yield themselves fully to it, that opposition and even persecution are to be expected….the dislike and the persecution which grew out of it were evidence that, as Jesus had said, in the Gospel something had entered the world with which the world was at enmity (Latourette, 1975: 81).
Summary Definition
So, as we move forward through this study, how should we define persecution? My study of the New Testament leads me to agree with Boyd-MacMillan that Scripture makes NO distinction between a persecuted church and a free church. Some experience suffering in different degrees, and those not suffering as severely are called to help those in difficult situations - but there every indication I see is that "persecution" or "suffering" is the normal life for a Christian. Boyd-MacMillan presents six reasons for his all-encompassing definition of persecution (pages 114-117):
1) The New Testament does not limit the word to extreme physical suffering. Instead, the verb form of persecution, "to pursue," focuses on the fact of the pursuit, not the results of it.
2) Scripture makes clear that every Christian should expect persecution (2 Timothy 3:12; Acts 14:22; Matthew 5:11; 1 Peter 4:12-13; 1 John 3:13).
3) Persecution is an outgrowth of a spiritual battle and as such, is not limited in location. He observes, "The hatred that spiritual forces bear toward Christ does not diminish in democracies." (p 115)
4) Throughout history, the church has embraced all types of hostility as forms of persecution.
5) Just because we are all "the persecuted church", we are not absolved from helping the "severely persecuted" who need our urgent assistance. In fact, recognizing that their suffering is an extension of the same battles we face should drive us further to action. As Boyd-MacMillan says, "The terrible danger is that Western Christians, who do not regard themselves as part of the persecuted church, often fail to see themselves in a spiritual battle at all. And those who are not aware of the fight are losing it."
6) If we limit the definite of persecution to its most extreme forms, we fail to address the causes of persecution. When we hold a broader definition, we are able to recognize patterns and address the roots of persecution. 

I thoroughly agree with these summaries. However, my biggest reason for a broad definition, outside Scripture itself, comes from the words of an elderly North Korean who fled the country in 1997: "If you limit persecution to those who are in jail or being beaten or having their property stolen, you are saying that all other Christians are dead. You see, the best and only way to know you are alive in Christ is when you are persecuted. The persecution proves Christ is within." (Boyd-MacMillan, p. 118).

Going back to the analogy we started with so many words ago: We are all given different "tours of duty" by our commanding officer. Those duty stations may change many times over the course of our lives. But always, always we remain engaged in the same battle as our brothers and sisters throughout the world.

So, I will conclude this post with two broad definitions of persecution: Ronald Boyd-MacMillan's, and my own. As we move forward, please keep these in mind.

 Ronald Boyd-MacMillan:"Christian persecution is any hostility, experienced from the world, as a result of one's identification with Christ. This can include hostile feelings, attitudes, words, and actions." (p. 114)

Rosa: Christian persecution is any suffering that would not occur apart from a radical commitment to Christ - a radical commitment attracts an intentional pursuit of the Christian in a spiritual war.
YOUR TURN: What do you think about these definitions? What is your definition of persecution? Talk to me through the comments!


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1979. Persecution: A permanent feature of the church. In Destined to Suffer? African Christians Face the Future, ed. Brother Andrew.

Andrew, Brother. 
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Schirrmacher, Thomas.
2001                The Persecution of Christians Concerns us All: Toward a theology of martyrdom. 70 Biblical-Theological Theses Written for the German Evangelical Alliance. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from  http://www.contra-mundum.org/schirrmacher/Persecution.pdf.

Schlossberg, Herbert.
1991                A Fragrance of Oppression: The church and its persecutors. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books.

Tallman, J. Ray.
2000                Martyrdom. In Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, ed. A. Scott Moreau. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.

Tson, Josef.
1997                Suffering, Martyrdom, and Rewards in Heaven. New York: University Press of America.

Weinrich, William C.
1981                Spirit and Martyrdom: A study of the work of the Holy Spirit in contexts of persecution and martyrdom in the New Testament and early Christian literature. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America.

Wilkins, Michael J.
1991                Following the Master. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.

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